Re-Infection of COVID-19 at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta, from March 2020 to June 2021


  • Jatu Aphridasari Dr. Moewardi General Hospital/Sebelas Maret University



Background: COVID-19 reinfection has been identified and is being studied. Several risk factors, including being a health worker and having A blood type, are linked to reinfection, and comorbidities such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and asthma influence the disease's severity. To identify mutational variations associated with viral virulence and spread, genetic studies are required. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, as well as patient characteristics and risk factors related to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.

Subjects and Method: This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the medical records of patients with COVID-19 reinfection treated at the Dr. Moewardi General Hospital (RSDM) Surakarta from March 2020 to June 2021. A sample was collected from 19 men and 20 women. The degree of COVID-19 infection is the dependent variable. Gender, occupation, comorbidities, and immunization history were the independent variables. The entire sampling method was employed in this investiga¬tion (consecutive sampling). Data is handled in Microsoft Excel 2010, and statistical analysis is performed in SPSS version 20.0.

Results: COVID-19 re-infection is equally likely in men and women. The average patient age was 42 years, with patients ranging in age from 25 to 73 years. Patients in the study were classified as either health workers or non-health workers, with 29 (76.3%) and 9 (23.7%) respectively. Due of restricted resources, the average period of COVID-19 re-infection is 197.6 +/- 97 days without genomic sequence investigation. Comorbidities were discovered in 11 of 38 COVID-19 reinfection patients (29%) Only 6 individuals (15.8%) with COVID-19 reinfection had a history of vaccination.

Conclusion: Using convalescent plasma to treat patients with COVID-19 is a rather safe practice. Our analysis demonstrated that the administration of convalescent plasma did not enhance survival or clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease.

Keywords: COVID-19, COVID-19 reinfection, health workers, comorbidity

Correspondence: Jatu Aphridasari. Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta – Indonesia. Mobile: +6281289991329.


Adab P, Haroon S, O’Hara ME, Jordan RE (2022). Comorbidities and COVID-19. BMJ. o1431. Doi: 10.1136/bmj.o1431.

Adrielle dos Santos L, Filho PG de G, Silva AMF, Santos JVG, Santos DS, Aquino MM, de Jesus RM., et al. (2021). Re-current COVID-19 including evidence of reinfection and enhanced severity in thirty Brazilian healthcare workers. J. Infect. 82(3): 399–406. Doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.01.020.

Azam M, Sulistiana R, Ratnawati M, Fibri-ana AI, Bahrudin U, Widyaningrum D, Aljunid SM (2020). Recurrent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity after COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 10(1): 20692. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77739-y.

Azizi Z, Shiba Y, Alipour P, Maleki F, Raparelli V, Norris C, Forghani R., et al. (2022). Importance of sex and gender factors for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization: a sex-stratified analysis using machine learning in UK Biobank data. BMJ Open. 12(5): e05-0450. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-05-0450.

Ballering AV, Oertelt-Prigione S, olde Hart-man TC, Rosmalen JGM, Boezen M, Mierau JO, Franke LH., et al. (2021). Sex and gender-related differences in COVID-19 diagnoses and SARS-CoV-2 testing practices during the first wave of the pandemic: the Dutch lifelines COVID-19 Cohort Study. J. women’s health. 30(12): 1686–1692. Doi: 10.1089/jwh.2021.0226.

Doerre A, Doblhammer G (2022). The influence of gender on COVID-19 infections and mortality in Germany: In-sights from age- and gender-specific modeling of contact rates, infections, and deaths in the early phase of the pandemic. PLOS ONE. 17(5): e02-68119. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.026-8119.

Duggan NM, Ludy SM, Shannon BC, Reisner AT, Wilcox SR (2021). Is novel coronavirus 2019 reinfection possible? Interpreting dynamic SARS-CoV-2 test results. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 39: 256.e1-256.e3. Doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2-020.06.079.

Dzinamarira T, Mhango M, Dzobo M, Ngara B, Chitungo I, Makanda P, Atwine J., et al. (2021). Risk factors for COVID-19 among healthcare workers. A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 16(5): e0250958. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250958.

Ejaz H, Alsrhani A, Zafar A, Javed H, Junaid K, Abdalla AE, Abosalif KOA, Ahmed Z, Younas, S (2020). COVID-19 and comorbidities: Deleterious impact on infected patients. J. Infect. Public Health. 13(12): 1833–1839. Doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014.

Endeshaw Y, Campbell K (2022). Advanced age, comorbidity and the risk of mortality in COVID-19 infection. J Natl Med Assoc. 114(5): 512–517. Doi: 10.1-016/j.jnma.2022.06.005.

Falahi S, Kenarkoohi A (2020). COVID-19 reinfection: prolonged shedding or true reinfection?. New Microbes and New Infections. 38: 100812. Doi: 10.-1016/j.nmni.2020.100812.

Farrukh L, Mumtaz A, Sana MK (2021). How strong is the evidence that it is possible to get SARS‐CoV‐2 twice? A systematic review. Rev. Med. Virol. 31(5): 1–12. Doi: 10.1002/rmv.2203.

Gao C, Zhu L, Jin CC, Tong YX, Xiao AT, Zhang S (2021). Prevalence and impact factors of recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 detection in 599 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. CMI, 27(5): 785.e1-785.e7. Doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.01.028.

Hadi C, Pramana C (2021). Profile of CO-VID-19 Patients in Dr. Moewardi Hos-pital Surakarta Indonesia. Open Access Maced. J. Med. Sci. 9(B): 1621–1624. Doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2021.752-2.

Kang SJ, Jung SI (2020). Age-related morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. IC, 52(2), 154. Doi: 10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.154.

Lin DY, Gu Y, Xu Y, Wheeler B, Young H, Sunny SK, Moore Z., et al. (2022). Association of primary and booster vaccination and prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe CO-VID-19 Outcomes. JAMA. 328(14): 1415. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.17876.

Oda G, Sharma A, Lucero-Obusan C, Schirmer P, Sohoni P, Holodniy M (2021). COVID-19 infections among healthcare personnel in the United States Veterans Health Administration, March to August 2020. J Occup Environ Med. 63(4): 291–295. Doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000002109.

Ozaras R, Ozdogru I, Yilmaz AA (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 re-infection: first report from Turkey. New Microbes and New Infections. 38: 100774. Doi: 10.1016/j.nmni.-2020.100774.

Romero Starke K, Petereit-Haack G, Schu-bert M, Kämpf D, Schliebner A, Heg-ewald J, Seidler A (2020). The age-related risk of severe outcomes due to COVID-19 Infection: A Rapid Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 17(16): 5974. Doi: 10.3390/ijerph171-65974.

Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P, Hosein Z., et al. (2020). Comorbidity and its Impact on Patients with COVID-19. CCM. 2(8): 1069–1076. Doi: 10.1007/s42399-020-00363-4.

Solomon MD, Escobar GJ, Lu Y, Schle-ssinger D, Steinman JB, Steinman L, Lee C., et al.(2022). Risk of severe COVID-19 infection among adults with prior exposure to children. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 119(33). Doi: 10.1073/pnas.2204141119. 63(7): 404–429. Doi: 10.5124/jkma.2020-.63.7.404.

WHO (2021). Hypertension WHO. In Hypertension. 12–14. https://www.who.-int/news/item/25-08-2021-more-than-700-million-people-with-un-treated-hypertension.

Zhang XN, Qiu C, Zheng YZ, Zang XY, Zhao Y (2020). Self-management among elderly patients with hypertension and its association with individual and social environmental factors in China. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 35(1): 45–53. Doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000608.

Zainiyah Z, Susanti E (2020). Anxiety in pregnant women during coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in East Java, Indonesia. Majalah Kedokteran Ban-dung. 52(3): 149-153. Doi: 10.15395/-mkb.v52n3.2043.

Zhang Z (2016). Univariate description and bivariate statistical inference: The first step delving into data. Ann Transl Med. 4(5). Doi: 10.21037/atm.2016.0-2.11.