Dietary Pattern As a Risk Factor of Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity: Meta-Analysis


  • Linda Wahyu Septianawati Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: Non-Communicable Disease is a disease that is considered unable to transmit or spread from one person to another but is a cause of death globally, especially diabetes mellitus and obesity. According to WHO, the number of deaths due to PTM in 2016 was 40.5 million (71%) worldwide. Diet is  one of the risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity. This study aims to analyze the effect of diet as a risk factor for diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Subjects and Method: This study was a syste­matic review and meta-analysis using a cross-sectional design. The articles used in this stu­dy were obtained from several databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Spring­er­link, and ScienceDirect. The articles used in this study were those published from 2011-2020. The article search was carried out by consi­dering the eligibility criteria defined using the PICO model. P: adults, I: unhealthy eating patterns, C: healthy eating patterns, and O: Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity. The keywords to search for articles were "dietary pattern", "risk", "obesity", and "diabetes mellitus," and "adjus­ted odds ratio". The articles included in this study were full-text articles with cross-sectional study design. Articles were collected using PRISMA flow diagrams. Articles were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

Results: A total of 15 articles were reviewed in this study. The meta-analysis showed that an unhealthy diet increased the risk of Diabetes (aOR= 1.65; 95% CI= 1.29 to 2.11; p <0.001). The meta-analysis of 9 articles also showed that an unhealthy diet increased the risk of obesity (aOR= 1.42; 95% CI= 1.21 to 2.66; p <0.001). This meta-analysis combines primary studies from Swaziland, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Ame­rica, Malaysia, Ghana, Romania, Nepal, Ire­land, and Korea.

Conclusion: Unhealthy diet is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Keywordsdietary pattern, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cross-sectional

Correspondence: Linda Wahyu Septiananwati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email:

Indonesian Journal of Medicine (2021), 06(01): 82-94



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