Difference of Calcium Levels in Infants with Low Birth Weight


  • Sandi Nugraha Department of Pediatrics, Universitas Sebelas Maret/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta
  • Harsono Salimo Department of Pediatrics, Universitas Sebelas Maret/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta
  • Dwi Hidayah Department of Pediatrics, Universitas Sebelas Maret/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta


Background: Hypocalcemia is a condition that can cause serious disorders, especially in new­borns. The occurrence of hypocalcemia is an event that often occurs in babies born that can be caused due to late parathyroid hormone function in calcium metabolism in the baby's body. Hypo­calcemia is often associated with hypotension and disorders of the heart rhythm, symptoms that are often seen are apnea, tachycardia, lethar­gy, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disor­ders. This study aimed to analyze differences in calcium level between low birth weight infants.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted at Dr Moewardi Hospital, Sura­kar­ta, Central Java, from December 2016 to April 2017. A sample of 158 LBW children was selected using consecutive sampling. The dependent va­ria­­ble is a decrease in calcium levels. The inde­pen­dent variable is low birth weight babies. Data collected by medical records. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.

Results: Calcium level ≥1.13 mmol/L (OR= 0.30; 95% CI= 0.15 to 0.57; p <0.001), no seizures (OR= 0.20; 95% CI= 0.06 to 0.64; p = 0.004), and QoTC (OR= 0.20; 95% CI= 0.07 to 0.572; p= 0.003) decreased the risk of low birth weight.

Conclusion: Calcium level ≥1.13, no seizures, and QoTC decrease the risk of low birth weight.

Keywords: low birth weight, hypo­calcemia

Correspondence: Sandi Nugraha. Department of Pediatrics, Uni­ver­sitas Sebelas Maret/ Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Phone/Fax.0271-633348. Email:sssa­n­di­nugraha@gmail.com

Indonesian Journal of Medicine (2020), 05(02): 131-136


American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, and the American college of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetrics. 1988. Maternal Fetal Medicine: Guidelines for Perinatal Care. Elk Grove Village, III. American Academy of Pediatrics.

Bassareo PP, Fanos V, Puddu M, Cadeddu C, Balzarini M, Mercuro G (2011).Significant QT interval prolongation and long QT in young adult ex-preterm newborns with extremely low birth weight. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.24(9):1115-8. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.543600.

Damanik SM. 2008. Klasifikasi Bayi Menurut Berat Lahir dan Masa Gestasi (Classification of babies according to birth weight and gestation period). Hlm 11-2. Dalam: Kosim MS, Yunanto A, Dewi R, Sarosa GI, Usman A, penyunting. Buku Ajar Neonatologi.Jakarta: IDAI.

Davis AS, Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Li L, Das A, Stoll BJ, Walsh MC, et al. (2010). Seizures in extremely low birth weight infants are associated with adverse outcome. J Pediatr. 157(5): 720–725.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.04.065

Elizabeth KE, Krishnan V, Zachariah P (2007). Auxologic, Biochemical and Clinical (ABC) Profile of Low Birth Weight Babies—A 2 year Prospective Study. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 53(6): 374–382. https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmm048

Gomella TL (2013). Assessment of Gestational Age. Dalam: Cuningham FG, Mac Donald PC, Gant NF, penyunting. Neonatology; Management, Procedures, On Call Problem, Diseases, and Progress. Edisi 15. New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L, Torloni MR (2014). Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventinghypertensive disorders and related problems. CochraneDatabase Syst Rev. (6):CD001059.https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001059.pub4

Honarpisheh A (2003). Frequency of hypocalcemia in low birth weight infants at hospitals inKashan in 1997. Med J of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 17(1): 47-50. http://mjiri.iums.ac.ir/article-1-722-e-n.pdf

Horne H S. 2004. Electrolyte Balance. Dalam: Swearingen P.L.Penyunting. Fluid, Electrolite and Acid Base Balance. Edisi ke 5. St Louis, Missouri: Mosby year book Inc.

Jain A, Agarwal R, Sankar MJ, Deorari A, Paul VK (2008). Hypocalcemia in the Newborn. Indian J Pediatr.77(10):11238. doi: 10.1007/s12098-010-0176-0

Kamilah BR. 2008. Gangguan Cairan dan Elektrolit. Dalam: Kosim MS, Yunanto A, Dewi R, Sarosa GI, Usman A, penyunting. Buku Ajar Neonatologi; Jakarta: IDAI.

Kant S, Haldar P, Gupta A, Lohiya A (2019). Serum calcium level among pregnant women and its associationwith pre-eclampsia and delivery outcomes: A cross-sectional study from North India. Nepal J Epidemiol.9(4): 795-803.doi: 10.3126/nje.v9i4.23150

Mazumder MW, Begum N, Mannan MA (2012). Study of blood glucose and serum calcium level in small forgestational age babies. J Shaheed Suhrawardy Med Coll, 4(2):50-52.

Mimouni F, Tsang. 1994. Neonatal hypocalcemia:To treat or not to treat?. J Am Coll Nutr.13(5):408-15.

Peacock M (201). Calcium metabolism in health and disease. Clin J Am SocNephrol. 5(1): S23-30. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.05910809

Ronald S, Bloom M, Cropley C (2011). Neonatal Resuscitation. Dalam : Kattwinkel. J. Penyunting. Textbook Of Neonatal Resuscitation. Edisi ke-6. Philadelphia: American academy of pediatric.

Sabour H, Hossein-Nezhad A, Maghbooli Z, Madani F, MirE, Larijani B (2006). Relationship between pregnancy outcomes andmaternal vitamin D and calcium intake: A cross-sectional study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 22(10):585-9. Https://doi.org/10.1080/09513590601005409

Zhou P, Adam (2009). Hypocalcemia in infants and children. Pediatr Rev. 30(5): 190-2. doi: 10.1542/pir.30-5-190.