User

Association Between Hormonal Contraception and Blood Glucose Level Among Women of Childbearing Age in Sangkrah Community Health Center, Surakarta

Brillian Ferika Sabania, Bhisma Murti, Diffah Hanim

Abstract

Background: Hormonal contraceptive contains estrogen and progesterone hormones. These hormones are hypothesized to affect blood glucose level. This study aimed to determine the association between hormonal contraception and blood glucose level among childbearing aged women.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional design. The study subjects were childbearing aged women who used and did not use hormonal contraceptive in Sangkrah community health center, Surakarta. A total sample of 47 people consisting of 32 hormonal contraceptive users and 15 non users were selected for study by fixed exposure sampling. The data were collected by questionnaire, interview, anthropometric measurement, and direct measurement of blood glucose level. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression with SPSS for Windows.

Results: Women of childbearing age who used hormonal contraceptive had an average blood glucose 26 mg / dL higher than the non-users of hormonal contraceptive (b = 26.18; 95% CI 15.03 to 37.33; p <0.001). These estimates had controlled for the effect of confounding variables (i.e. Body Mass Index and diabetes mellitus risk factors).

Conclusion: There is a positive and statistically significant association between the use of hormonal contraceptive and blood glucose level among women of childbearing age.

Keywords: hormonal contraception, blood glucose level.

Correspondence: Brillian Ferika Sabania. Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta.

 

Indonesian Journal of Medicine (2016), 1(1): 1-11
https://doi.org/10.26911/theijmed.2016.01.01.01

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ahrendt HJ, Bühling KJ. (2010). Estrogen Free Contraception: Progestin-only- systems. J Reproductions Endocrinal. 7 (Sonderheft 1): 000-0.

Albar E. (2009). Contraception. In: Science Content ed 2. Jakarta: PT Bina Library Sarwono Prawirohardjo.

BKKBN. (2012). Number of Active Women Participants Family Planning in January 2012. www.bkkbn.go.id.

Central Bureau of Statistics. (2012). The percentage of married women aged 15- 49 who use birth control. Accessed February 2013.

______________(2013). www.bps.go.id - Accessed February 2013. Chrousos GP. (2007). The Gonadal Hormone and Inhibitors; Katzung on Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 10th ed.; The McGraw-Hill Co. Inc .; p.664-71.

Department of Health. (2008). Technical manual measurement of risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Jakarta: Ministry of Health.

Glacier and Gebbie A. (2006). Family Planning and Reproductive Health. Issue 4. Jakarta: EGC, pp: 34-86.

Godsland IF, Walton C, C Felton, Proudler A, Patel A and Wynn V. (1992) Insulin resistance, secretion, and metabolism in users of oral contraceptives. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74: 64-70.

Guyton AC, Hall JE. (2008). Textbook of medical physiology. 11th Edition. Jakarta: EGC.

Hall PE. (1994). The introduction of Cyclofem into National Family Planning Programmes: Experience from Studies in Indonesia, Jamaica, Mexico, Thailand and Tunisia. World Health Organization Task Force on Study on the Introduction and Transfer of Technologies for Fertility Regulation. Contraception, 49: 489- 507.

Hardjoeno H. (2003). Interpretation of Test Results Diagnostic Laboratory. Jakarta: EGC.

HA Harper, Victor WR, Peter AM. (2003). Review of physiological chemistry. California: Lange Medical Publications.

Hilal M. (1985). Oral Contraception and Carbohydrate metabolism the physiopathological explanation. http:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. February 2013.

Lemon P and K Burke. (2002). Medical Surgical Nursing: critical thinking in client care (2th Ed). Prenince Hall. New Jersey.

Manuaba IBG. (1998). Obstetrics, Gynecology and Family Planning for Education Midwives. Jakarta: EGC.

Murti B. (2003). Principles and Methods of Study on the Epidemiology. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Perkeni (Society of Endocrinology Indonesia). (2006). Consensus of Diabetes Mellitus Management in Indonesia.

Schteingart DE. (2006). The principle mechanism of endocrine and metabolic control. In: Price SA, LM Wilson. Pathophysiology of concept clinical disease processes. Jakarta: EGC Book Medical Publishers, p: 1203.

Siswosudarmo HR, HM Anwar, Emilia O. (2001). Contraceptive technology. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Stubblefield PG. (2007). Carr-Ellis S, Kapp N. Family Planning, on Berek and Novak's Gynecology; 14th ed .; Lippin- cott Williams and Wilkins; p. 247-312.

Stryer L. (2000). Mohamad Sadikin alih bahasa et al. Glycogen metabolism. In Biochemistry. Jakarta: EGC. 590-8.

Tjay TH, Rahardja K. (2007a). Antikonseptiva. In: Drugs important. Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputindo, pp: 712-722.

Valdes CT and Elkind-Hirsch KE. (1991) Intravenous glucose tolerance test derived insulin sensitivity changes during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endo- crinol Metab 72: 642-646.

Widodo FY. (2012). The effect of our combined contraceptive pills on blood glucose levels. Accessed March 14, 2013.

Wiegratz I and Christian JT. (2011). Hormonal contraception what kind, when, and for Whom? Dtsch Arztebl Int., 108 (28-29): 495-506.

Wiegratz I and Thaler CJ. (2011). Hormonal Contraception-What Kind, When, and for Whom? Dtsch Arztebl Int, 108 (28- 29): 495-506.

Wulansari Huriawati P and H (eds). (2006). Variety of methods of contraception. Jakarta: EGC.

Zieman M, Hatcher RA, Cwiak C. (2010). Managing the contraception for your pocket in 2010-2012. Accessed Fe- bruary 2013.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.