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Age-Related Sensory Impairment and Cognitive Decline in Geriatric

Dewi Pratiwi, Aulia Hervi Anggraini, Febri Arianto Bayu

Abstract

Background: Incidence of sensory impair­ment and cognitive decline were increase with aging, each would give a considerable impact on public health and quality of life especially in geriatric population. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the correlation between sensory impairment and cognitive decline and the common mechanisms were sensory deprivation, information degradation, cognitive load, resource allocation and or social isolation. Prolonged reductions in the quality or quantity of sensory input lead to cognitive deterioration due to neuronal atrophy. This study aimed to determine whether age related sensory impairment with cognitive decline.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study design conducted at geriatric clinic, Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Sura­karta, from May 31 to July 1, 2018. A sample of 54 elderly aged ≥60 years old was selected by consecutive sampling. The dependent variable was cognitive decline. The independent varia­bles were presbyacusis, presbyastasis, olfactory impairment, diabetes, and hypertension. Pres­bycusis was measured by Pure Tone Audio­metry. Presbyastasis was measured by Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) test. Olfactory dysfunction was measured by sniffing test. Cognitive decline was assessed by MoCA-Ina questionnaire. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test.

Results: The mean age of subjects was 70.5 years old ranging from 61-81 years old and most of the subjects were females (72.2%). Pure tone audiometry test revealed that 44.4% pati­ents had presbycusis. Dynamic Visual Acuity test showed that 25.9% patients had pres­byas­tasis. Sniffing test revealed that 29.6% patients had olfactory dysfunction. Presbyacusis (OR= 11.9; 95% CI= 1.3 to 105.5; p= 0.008) and olfac­tory dysfunction (OR= 10.8; 95% CI= 1.8 to 61.9; p= 0.002) increased cognitive decline, and they were statistically significant. Presbyas­tasis decreased cognitive decline (or= 0.9; 95% CI= 0.1 to 5.3; p= 0.948), but it was statis­tically non-significant

Conclusion: Sensorineural health may serve as a marker of brain aging therefore sensory measures can be used as screening tools for cognitive decline risk.

Keywords: sensory impairment, presbycusis, presbyastasis, olfactory dysfunction, cognitive decline

Correspondence: Dewi Pratiwi. Department of Otorhinolaryngo­logy Head and Neck Surgery, Dr. Moewardi Hospital/ Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Central Java. Email: pratiwi­dewi81@gmail.com

Indonesian Journal of Medicine (2020), 05(02): 153-161
https://doi.org/10.26911/theijmed.2020.05.02.10

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